This paper analyzes available data on the synthesis and properties of polymer nanocomposites prepared by various techniques (sol-gel processing and microemulsion and frontal polymerizations) and containing polymethyl methacrylate, polydimethylsiloxane, natural rubber, and other polymers as binders, and various amounts of nano- and microadditives: SiO2, TiO2, FeO, clay, and Y1Ba2Cu3O7 − x. We consider the physicomechanical, dynamic mechanical, superconducting, thermophysical, thermochemical, and other properties of the polymer nanocomposites. Also examined are data on the activated anionic polymerization of ɛ-caprolactam in the presence of various amounts of SiO2 nanoparticles. Results on crystallization kinetics and electron microscopy data lead us to conclude that SiO2 nanoparticles act as heterogeneous nucleation centers for the crystallization of the forming poly(ɛ-caprolactam).
Analysis of our results and data reported by other groups demonstrates that the intercalation of polymer macromolecules and their fragments into the interlayer spaces of ceramic grains increases the superconducting transition temperature of the ceramic by 1–3°C.
Original Russian Text © S.P. Davtyan, A.S. Avetisyan, A.A. Berlin, A.O. Tonoyan, 2013, published in Obzornyi Zhurnal po Khimii, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 3–57.